space flights. aircrew After the creation of NASA, USAFSAM continued to actively support civilian and military manned space missions through clinical and physiologic research.  The Hazelhurst Laboratory had a small decompression chamber and research was begun on human tolerance to lowered oxygen tension. high quality of training imparted at the Institute and the cutting edge research being The Institute, as it stands today, has been built upon the hard and tireless work , With the onset of war in Europe the United States began mobilizing its forces in 1940 which resulted in an expansion of personnel and funding for the School. Armed Forces to be awarded the Presidential Colour, The work ethos of the personnel of this Institute exemplify the inscription on the The school was established with the aim of, Imparting training in Aviation Medicine to medical officers of the Armed Forces, Indoctrination USA and both the countries accepted JAM aeromedical evaluation center. This page was last edited on 30 November 2020, at 16:03. first Commanding Officer. The programs we've put together at UNSW Aviation are unique, of high … involved in designing physiological experiments that were conducted in space wh statue of Francis Trudeau "To cure sometimes, to relieve often, to comfort always Box: 30689-00100, Nairobi, Kenya. , In early August 1918, General John J. Pershing identified a need for medical assistance in France. The RAF Centre of Aviation Medicine (RAF CAM) is an internationally recognised organisation with highly specialised teams of Aviation and Space Medicine professionals and support staff. The team from the Research Laboratory employed lessons learned from their work in the laboratory and by October 1918 there was a marked improvement in health and morale among aircrew and a reduction in the aircraft accident rate. The introduction of the Operational Training in Aerospace It has many aviation courses ranging from aviation management, safety and security, to operations. School of Aviation Medicine (Air Force) is located at a) Jalahalli b) Hyderabad c) Bangalore d) Allahabad research activities at the Institute. Medicine(OPTRAM) courses has revitalized and optimized aircrew training in a more realistic and meaningful , The term Flight Surgeon was adopted by the Hazelhurst Laboratory on March 11, 1918 to identify those physicians devoting themselves to the health and well-being of the flyers.  USAFSAM was founded in 1918 to conduct research into the medical and physiologic domains related to human flight, and as a school for medical officers trained to support military aviation operations, later coined as flight surgeons. It is concerned with the health and safety of those who fly; crew and passengers; as well as the selection and performance of those who hold aviation licenses. Hyperbaric and Decompression chamber has been installed and ready to start  Major William R. Ream was the first Flight Surgeon killed on duty in an aviation accident on August 23, 1918. The EASA Basic Aviation Medicine course is designed to meet the EASA Part Med D0.10 & D0.15 training requirements and to prepare medical practitioners for authorisation as Aeromedical Examiners (AMEs) of flight crew license holders requiring Class 2 medical certification.  The new wing combined the Air Force Research Laboratory's Human Effectiveness Directorate with USAFSAM, and the 311th Performance Enhancement Directorate in a 3-Directorate wing: Human Effectiveness Directorate, School of Aerospace Medicine, and the Human Systems Integration Directorate, Previous Commanders of the School of Aerospace Medicine, Names for the School of Aerospace Medicine over the years. manner. carried out by researchers at the unit. capability and is being utilized to its full potential as a versatile motion based , In March 1950 a Radiobiological Laboratory was established at Austin, Texas as a joint venture between USAFSAM and the University of Texas which looked at the effects of ionizing radiation on living organisms and the prevention and treatment of radiation injury. ensuring that the IAF continues to achieve its motto, Nabha Sparsham Deeptam. Aviation Medicine. (Washington [D.C.]) 1902-1939, May 29, 1919, FINAL EDITION, Image 3", "Evening star. problems of in the future. It was established to demonstrate that the holder has achieved an appropriate level of competence for working in aviation medicine. Laboratories for the study of body fluids and foods and nutrition for space flight. On 21 November 1963, President John F. Kennedy dedicated the new school complex at Brooks Air Force Base, Texas the day before he was assassinated in Dallas, Texas. The simulator modeled the inside of a space vehicle and was built to study humans in a closed ecological system at simulated heights of 80,000 feet and above. The first textbook on aviation medicine. One of the first observations made by General Lyster was the alarming mortality rate from aircraft accidents among flying cadets at training centers in the U.S. and with the Allies in France. The headquarters for the School remained at Randolph Air Force Base along with the Research Department and the Primary and Advanced Courses in Aviation Medicine, while the Flight Nurse Course, Physiological Training Officers Course, and all enlisted courses were transferred to the 3882nd School Group, Gunter Branch-School of Aviation Medicine. The meeting was held in San Antonio Texas and the results of the symposium were published in a book entitled Physics and Medicine of the Upper Atmosphere with 21 chapters from 34 collaborating scientists. flight. based aeromedical decision-making paradigms in the assessment of aircrew. Carrying Sqn Ldr Rakesh Sharma became the first Indian cosmonaut. personnel. Medicine. He had previously established and served as Director of the Aero Medical Laboratory at Wright Field from 1935 through 1940, and then as Director of the Research Department at the School of Aviation Medicine (1941–1942) before serving as the Surgeon of the Air Division at the Office of Military Government for Germany in Berlin (1942–1946). Flying fast-jet aircraft puts the cardiovascular physiology of the human body under extreme physical stress. , In August 1946, Colonel (Maj Gen) Armstrong formally proposed the establishment of an Aeromedical Center to provide for the teaching, research, and clinical practice of aviation medicine. with IAM due to the availability of specialized departments and simulators. The MOL missions were planned to be up to 30 days.  Following the launch of Sputnik in 1957, the U.S. pursued both civilian and military manned space programs with the USAF tasked with the military effort. , Another milestone was achieved on 8 February 1953 when the American Board of Preventive Medicine was authorized by the American Medical Association to establish aviation medicine as a specialty in the field of preventive medicine and to grant specialty certification in aviation medicine. Its first headquarters were at Hazelhurst Field on Long Island, New York. The new HPHC is being exploited Aeromedical research has been one of the core areas of expertise of this Institute. As a result, on April 28, 1917, an Air Service Medical, Signal Corps, US Army was organized with General Theodore C. Lyster, Medical Corps, US Army, appointed to the newly created position of Chief Surgeon, Aviation Section, Signal Corps on September 6, 1917. 1 History 1.1 Formation 1.2 Centralisation 2 Function 2.1 Academic support 2.2 Training courses 3 Facilities 4 See also 5 References 6 External links 6.1 News items The RAF CAM was formed on 1 December 1998. Highly realistic December 1973. on The  Initial skills training is provided for enlisted and officers in the disciplines of public health and preventive medicine, Bioenvironmental Engineering, aerospace physiology, aeromedical evacuation for nurses and enlisted medical technicians, flight and operational medicine, and critical care air transport team (CCATT) treatment. The indigenously The School of Army Aviation Medicine, a satellite campus of the Medical Center of Excellence at Joint Base San Antonio, is the Army’s center for all aeromedical training for aviators, aircrew, and aeromedical personnel. Share Page: Department Aviation Safety and Security. There were approximately 3,000 American flyers in France and aircraft accidents accounted for 74.6% of the fatalities among aviators, with only 24.8% due to combat and only 0.6% to disease. With the vital help of this Aerospace Medical Center, with the help of all those who labor in the space endeavor, with the help and support of all Americans, we will climb this wall with safety and with speed-and we shall then explore the wonders on the other side. ISAM. In 1982, IAM took a giant leap towards the medical support of manned space USAFSAM Technical Report AD-772 697, Development of the USAF School of Aerospace Medicine Portable Therapeutic Liquid Oxygen Breathing System. Regulations, Guidance and Syllabus. about 600 personnel are trained annually. with the indigenous development of the NVG laboratory. London: Henry Frowde, 1919. put in by the officers of the unit in the past decade. Gen Eugen G. Reinartz MC with Maj. Harry G. Armstrong MC as the Director. Training. friendly foreign countries. , In July 1952 Public Law 534 was passed by the 82nd Congress which authorized $8,000,000 for construction of facilities (The Aeromedical Center) for the School of Aviation Medicine at Brooks Air Force Base, Texas. The crest of the Institute depicts a torch of knowledge with the IAF Wilmer. In 1926 the army transferred the School of Aviation Medicine to Brooks, where it remained for five years. related. Aviation Medicine ... East African School of Aviation . In 2007 the Germany Academy for Aviation and Travel Medicine established the European School of Aviation Medicine to provide training in aviation medicine in English language. Maj. Bauer established a permanent course of instruction for flight surgeons and the first regular class of 2-months duration was begun in May 1919. Every year, EUSAM offers courses for training in Aviation Medicine with about 40 participants. A human centrifuge for the study of rapid onset acceleration for fighter pilots and for astronaut launch and re-entry. Presidential Colour was awarded to this prestigious Institute on 21 Nov 2005. This task named "Project Pawan", involved comprehensive medical evaluation , On April 1, 1946, the School was transferred from the Air Training Command to Air University Command and became the graduate medical department of the Air University, the educational and doctrinal center of the Air Force. Both the military and civilian manned space programs resulted in major expansion of the research facilities and capabilities at the Brooks Aeromedical Center: The first Primary Course in Aviation Medicine was held at the new campus on Brooks AFB 11 August 1959. The new research building on Randolph Field was officially opened on April 2, 1943. Admission to the programme shall be subject to the approval of the Pro-Vice-Chancellor (Health Sciences) on the advice of the Academic Board of the Otago Medical School, which must be satisfied that the applicant has the ability and experience to proceed to the programme. Eurofighter Typhoon pilots regularly experience 9G. 68. from the 22-week aviation medicine course given by the U.S. Navy School of Aviation Medicine at Pensacola, Fla. During the period, three Army flight surgeons completed the first year of a 3-year aviation medicine residency, and as they proceeded to their second year of training, two others were selected to enter the program during the first quarter of fiscal year 1962. USAFSAM is one of the oldest continually operating school for flight surgeons and other operational medical personnel of its kind in the world. development. On 19 July 1957, No. selection and training of potential cosmonauts. A two-year Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) accredited clinical residency in Aerospace Medicine is provided for Physicians. The Institute is on the threshold of major modernization plans. The USAF focused on plans for a military space station, the Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL). is ready to face the challenges confronting the present day aviator. developed NVG training facility at the Institute has been upgraded and plans are on As demand for air travel increases, more pilots and aviation professionals will be required to facilitate this demand. The Institute is affiliated to the Rajiv Gandhi University for Aviation Medicine at Bangalore and its Mobile Decompression Chamber was utilized USAF School of Aerospace Medicine 2510 5th Street, Bldg. The SAM was then moved to Randolph Field (later Randolph Air Force Base), then back to Brooks in 1959. Right from the early days, the Institute has also provided aircrafts. Aviation brings people together and is an exciting and growing industry. universal cockpit were subsequently indigeniously designed. URL: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's, Lovelace Foundation for Medical Education and Research, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "USAFSAM: The Air Force's Medical Educators", "Wright-Patterson Air Force Base – 711th Human Performance Wing", "United States Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine 2015-2016 Course Catalog", "Aerospace Medicine: The Wright-Patt Connection", "USAF School of Aerospace Medicine Graduate Medical Education Annual Report Outlines Evolution of Aerospace Medicine Program", "Factsheets : USAFSAM Franzello Aeromedical Library", "WPAFB program proves rigorous for airmen, flight surgeons", "Altitude chamber training begins at the new 711th Human Performance Wi", "USAFSAM welcomes C-17 trainer, first in Air Force", "Greene County firm lands $2.5M Air Force deal", "RAMs complete first solo flights as part of expanded aviation training", "C-STARS (Center for the Sustainment of Trauma and Readiness Skills): Program in Trauma: University of Maryland School of Medicine", "United States Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine Epidemiology Consult Service and Public Health Education (WPAFB) | College of Veterinary Medicine", "DoD Global, Laboratory-based, Influenza Surveillance Program", "Influenza and respiratory disease surveillance: the US military's global laboratory-based network", "Gaming Research Integration For Learning Lab", "Research Altitude Chamber arrives at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base", "An Operationally Based Vision Assessment Simulator for Domes", "USAFSAM 711TH HPW Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio", "Operational Based Vision Assessment @ NASA Ames", "Evening star. NVG training is being imparted to aircrew. Aeromedical research is directed primarily at providing solutions to operational , In 1934 it was recognized that there was overlap in research topics between the School of Aviation Medicine and the Physiological Research Unit, Material Division, Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio. comprehensive human engineering and human factors support to the aviation functioning. The Diploma in Aviation Medicine is designed for medical practitioners who wish to practise aviation medicine. This is unique because such expertise in our country exists only at this , After the redeployment of the Laboratory following the Armistice, most of the laboratory staff were reassigned or returned to civilian life and in January 1919 Maj Louis H. Bauer replaced Colonel Wilmer as the Director of the Laboratory under a new name, The Medical Research Laboratory and School for Flight Surgeons and at a new location at Mitchel Field, Long Island. and. , By 1950 the School had outgrown its space on Randolph Field in San Antonio, Texas so portions of the education activities were temporarily placed at Gunter Air Force Base, Montgomery, Alabama. In 1997, the Institute was affiliated to Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Bangalore for the three year residency program in Aerospace us. IAM have strived and always lived up to their motto of "Nabhase Arogyam" i.e., Whatever the hazards, they must be guarded against. email@example.com. , In October 1954 USAFSAM took delivery of a sealed cabin simulator for space research. Without intervention, exposure to high G force would cause a pilot to lose consciousness through lack of blood to the brain, otherwise known as G-induced loss of consciousness or G-LOC. simulator has resulted in more realistic training of our aircrew. Their work matured leading to the creation of the Department of Space Medicine within the School on 9 Feb 1949. ensuring freedom from disease in the sky. Examination fees. problems. In August 1926 the School was moved to Brooks Field, San Antonio, Texas. The personnel of to its maximum for centrifuge training of aircrew of fighter aircrafts. The School of Aviation Medicine was founded in January 1918 to perform research on conditions affecting the fitness and efficiency of military flyers. © 2019. In 1985, med state of the art High Performance Human Centrifuge has recently been installed at The United States Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine began operations on January 19, 1918 at Hazelhurst Field, Mineola, Long Island as the Air Service Medical Research Laboratory under the leadership of Col. William H. Wilmer. Interest in reversing this trend led to the establishment of an Aviation Medical Research Board consisting of four Army Medical Corps officers to: The first action of the Aviation Medical Research Board was to direct construction of the Air Service Medical Research Laboratory at Hazelhurst Field on Long Island. internationally. The International Academy of Aviation and Space Medicine has a well-established Scholarship Programme, the aims of which are to enable young physicians commencing a career in aerospace medicine to undertake training in the specialty. In response the Air Service Medical Research Laboratory deployed 34 officers and 13 enlisted men to Issoudun, France. Institute has carved a niche for itself as a highly professional and efficient aerospace medicine activities in the country. It is concerned with the physiological stresses experienced by a healthy person in flight, and the interaction between the aviation environment and underlying health problems – in passengers as well as in aircrew. platform, so that aircrew can benefit from training. out The links below lead to international references and guidance that may be of help to our members, other … On January 20, 1942, a Research Department was formally established by the School Commandant Brig. authorized center for carrying out medical evaluation and selection of candidates for The Advanced aeromedical equipment and And much of the work in space food, radiation studies, space cabin atmospheres, and pressure suits were adopted by NASA during the Gemini and Apollo missions. P.O. Regulations for the Degree of Master of Aviation Medicine (MAvMed) Admission to the Programme. Lastly, two of the most noteworthy names in aviation medicine saw their careers take off during this time period – Harry G. Armstrong gaining his M.D. , Maj. Francis H. Poole succeeded Major Bauer as the Commandant of the School of Aviation Medicine in 1925. The school has top notch instructors with in depth experience in aviation, economics, policy and business areas. The high quality of research has been recognized both nationally and  In the first year of flying in World War I the English and French found that 2% of aircraft accidents were due to combat, 8% were caused by mechanical problems, and 90% were due to human failure.. USAFSAM is host to the largest aeromedical library in the US – the Franzello Aeromedical Library. Institute. Hunter arrived at his station first on May 8, 1918 and is considered the first flight surgeon. There they found the physical and mental health of the pilots in poor condition. The RAF Centre of Aviation Medicine is a medical organisation run by the Royal Air Force at RAF Henlow in Bedfordshire. Another aspect is aviation medicine with respect to air traffic controllers. We undertake research and provide training in the unique field of aviation medicine, which looks at the interaction between the aviation environment and human physiological and psychological systems. 1 Aero Medical Unit was moved to Air Force School of On November 8, 1922, the Air Service Medical research Laboratory and School for Flight Surgeons was designated as The School of Aviation Medicine. Beyond these, the Institute has ambitious plans for major research in space medicine. All Rights Reserved - Disclaimer, 58th Annual ISAM Conference & Publications, Know more about The Institute's role at present revolves around three broad areas, Aeromedical Research & Development Training. The Institute USAFSAM is located in Dayton, Ohio at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, and is part of the 711th Human Performance Wing (711 HPW) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). when the School of Aviation Medicine was started with Wg Cdr R Arunachalam as the musculoskeletal injuries, head injury, and post retention evaluation is vested entirely Eighty eight scheduled courses are conducted at the Institute in which (Topeka, Kan.) 1892-1980, September 05, 1918, HOME EDITION, Image 8", "Evening star. This was Kennedy's last official act as president and the location of his famous cap over the wall speech inviting the nation to embrace space exploration.. SAA - Singapore Aviation Academy, is world-class, innovative aviation school based in a beautiful country in Singapore. Civil & Academic Aviation Medicine  The MOL program was canceled in 1969 to reduce defense spending. Just five years later it was moved across town to Randolph Field in October 1931. On 8 August 1961 the School name was changed to The School of Aerospace Medicine. In July 1958 the USAFSAM Department of Space Medicine was reorganized as the Division of Space Medicine with 4 Departments. The school supported early military aviation from World War I through the evolution of aviation and into the modern era. Institute in the realm of Space, it was rechristened as the Institute of Aerospace In 2010, the Army Medical Department Center and School (AMEDDC&S) and the US Army School of Aviation Medicine convened a Flight Medic Critical Task selection board which determined that the requisite skill level for a flight medic should be a paramedic with certain additional skills. 1 Aero Medical Unit was moved to Air Force School of Aviation Medicine at Bangalore and its Mobile Decompression Chamber was utilized for training, research and evaluation activities at the school In 1968, the School was re-designated as Institute of Aviation Medicine because of its widened role and contribution. Soviet Union as pat of international co-operation. IAM was accepted in 1986 as a center for joint research studies with the The first of which was the Explosive It is also widely recognized for the for training, research and evaluation activities at the school In 1968, the School was wing and a snake entwined on the torch handle. In 1996 a new School-house on Brooks Air Force Base was completed (building 775). industry in the design, development and evaluation of indigenous aircraft The Diploma gives the trainee a sound grounding in basic science with an emphasis on human physiology. Medical evaluation of military and civil aircrew is one of the major roles of this The ultra modern A division of focus was agreed upon between the two research units with the Material Division taking responsibility for the development of equipment, and the School focusing on personnel factors having to do with selection, classification, and maintenance of the flyer. In view of the forays of the research The list of acronyms and abbreviations related to SAM - School of Aviation Medicine On June 21, 1949, an Aeromedical Planning Board was commissioned by the Surgeon General to formulate plans for an Aeromedical Center. Simulators like hot cockpit, dry floation tank, and contribution. It's origin dates back to 29 May 1957, It provides advice and expertise in Aviation and Space Medicine and focuses on advancing knowledge through the delivery of training to UK military aviators and medics and a programme of … Multiple altitude chambers of various sizes including a one-man chamber capable of. (Wahpeton, Richland County, Dakota [N.D.]) 1879-1919, December 19, 1918, Image 8", "The Topeka state journal. Medicine in 1989. Learn more. , USAFSAM Aeromedical Research Department conducts research in four key areas:, The United States Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine began operations on January 19, 1918 at Hazelhurst Field, Mineola, Long Island as the Air Service Medical Research Laboratory under the leadership of Col. William H. Recommended reading list. A school for flight surgeons was added to it the next year. Our main emphasis is on understanding the implications of … Capt. Institute of Aerospace Medicine (TAM) is a premiere Institute of the IAF and can  In 2010, 65 students from 46 countries attended courses at USAFSAM. The SD simulator has been upgraded to NVG On 19 July 1957, No. Aerospace Medicine PG Dip Pathway. And a six-month fellowship in Aerospace Medicine for International Officers is conducted each year. Just two months later the first three students graduated as Flight Surgeons and were ordered to the field for duty. This Nation has tossed its cap over the wall of space, and we have no choice but to follow it. Activities of I have always kept pace with the , On 10 May 1957, the groundbreaking ceremony was held for the construction of the New School of Aviation Medicine at Brooks Air Force Base, San Antonio, Texas, Space medicine research began at the School in 1947 conducted by Dr. Hubertus Strughold who was previously the Director of the Aeromedical Research Institute in Berlin from 1935 to 1945. To assist HAL in the aeromedical aspects of design and development of , USAFSAM provides consultative support to all USAF bases in the disciplines listed above fielding approximately 5000 requests and over 2.3M laboratory tests annually. human engineering and human factors support in the design, development and aeromedical Henry Graeme Anderson wrote this textbook while … And Dr. Heinz Haber, an Astrophysicist. (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, March 02, 1919, Image 53", "The Washington times. (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, February 26, 1922, Image 21", "Space Medicine In Project Mercury, CH2-2", Text of JFK Speech at Brooks Aeromedical Center Dedication, "USAFSAM closes one chapter and begins another", http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/772697.pdf, "The F-16 Onboard Oxygen Generating System: Performance Evaluation and Man Rating", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=United_States_Air_Force_School_of_Aerospace_Medicine&oldid=991537096, United States Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, United States Air Force military education and training, Military medical research organizations of the United States, Military medical organizations of the United States, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Army Air Service Medical Research Laboratory, The Medical Research Laboratory and School for Flight Surgeons, Investigate all conditions that would affect the efficiency of pilots, Develop and conduct experiments to determine the ability to fly at high altitudes, Develop and conduct experiments on methods for delivering oxygen to pilots at high altitudes, Act as a standing medical board for all matters relating to pilot fitness, A hospital ward for bed rest studies to simulate the effects of. 840 Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433-7913 Phone: (937) 938-2716 DSN: 798-2716 Registrar: For training, class schedule and registration information It is the main site of aviation medicine research in the UK. growth and developments in the fields of aviation and space medicine. They worked closely with the Atomic Energy Commission at Oak Ridge, Tennessee and their work resulted in many advances in knowledge important to this new field of study. Aviation Medicine Scholarship. from University of Louisville in 1925 and Louis H. Bauer serving as Commandant of the School of Aviation Medicine between 1919 and 1925. Robert J. The Diploma of Aviation Medicine (DAvMed) will be incorporated into the training. It is the nodal agency providing Col Paul A. Campbell served as the first Chief of the Division of Space Medicine.. (Columbia, Mo.) space laboratory at the Institute will cater for cutting edge space medicine research IAM for training of IAF fighter aircrew. The new Aviation evaluation of payload specialists for the proposed Indo Ameri American Space program simulators were developed / procured to keep pace with the modern developments The MOL was designed to be an earth-orbiting space station and would use a modified Gemini capsule attached to a cylinder-shaped laboratory. USAFSAM conducted medical research and provided medical support for the initial US space operations beginning in 1947 through the establishment of NASA in 1958. (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, April 06, 1920, Image 15", "The Evening Missourian. re-designated as Institute of Aviation Medicine because of its widened role and was also entrusted to the Institute.  The MOL never launched a space mission, but the USAFSAM MOL studies of man in space for extended periods of time in preparation for MOL missions were used by NASA in the operation of Skylab. Affiliated to Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Bangalore for the three year residency program in Aerospace.. 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Ream was the first flight Surgeon and growing industry Force Base completed... 775 ) support civilian and military manned space missions through clinical and physiologic research Health. Med evaluation of indigenous aircraft development 23, 1918, Texas expertise in our country exists at! Air Service medical research and provided medical support of manned space missions clinical. Operational medical personnel of its kind in the aeromedical aspects of design and development of the School of Medicine.