Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Most of the country of Greenland is covered with a giant icecap that is nearly two miles thick in areas. Glacier retreat results in a variety of negative consequences, including increased sea levels, floods, and fresh water shortages. (October 16, 2020). Since the 1990s, the retreat of glaciers in Alaska has made a disproportionally large contribution to global sea-level rise. The Arctic, the high mountains of Asia, and Patagonian glaciers also play relatively hefty roles. â20th Century Climate Change in the Tropical Andes: Observations and Results.â Climatic Change 59 (2003): 75â99. In the years since the USGS launched its landmark Alaska glacier research, the scientists have also begun combining their field studies data with new information gathered with modern geophysical and remote sensing methods. Reprinted from ClimateWire with permission from Environment & Energy Publishing, LLC. The world's rapidly melting glaciers has disastrous consequences on the animals that rely on them for survival. Moving up to 300 feet in a single year, the glacierâs retreat is marked each decade. The most important greenhouse gases are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and various artificial chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons. The scientists check snow levels against stakes theyâve inserteâ¦ "Glacier Retreat Presently, 10 percent of land area on Earth is covered with glacial ice, including glaciers, ice caps, and the ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica. Since the 1990s, the retreat of glaciers in Alaska has made a disproportionally large contribution to global sea-level rise. The resulting body of ice isâ¦, Ice is the solid state of water . When warming temperatures melt the surface of a land glacier, the land glacier only loses its mass by run-off. ." Now that they are shrinking, they leave behind bare bedrock and glacial till. Some glaciers in Pakistan's Karakorum have thickened and advanced due to enhanced precipitation, though glaciers in Asian mountain ranges are generally retreating. These data generally show that glaciers reached their most recent maximum during the Little Ice Age, a short and relatively mild cooling period that ended sometime in the nineteenth century. Glaciers may retreat when their ice melts or ablates more quickly than snowfall can accumulate and form new glacial ice. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis: Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. SUBLIMATION: Transformation of a solid to the gaseous state without passing through the liquid state. Generally, these glacier fluctuations show a strong statistical correlation with air temperatures over the last century, though other factors, such as changing cloud cover, snowfall, humidity, and climbing sea surface temperature, play roles of varying importance in different locations. ALBEDO: A numerical expression describing the ability of an object or planet to reflect light. Experts say those glaciers are influenced by different climates, allowing scientists to compare how glaciers respond in different regions. The speediness of the glacierâs retreat is due to the unique nature of tidewater glaciers, Colgan said. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. The marker for 1917 is about a mile from the glacierâs current point. A glacier is essentially a river of ice. Glaciers, along with ice caps and ice sheets, cover about 10% of Earth's land massâmostly in Greenland and Antarctica. Glacier melt provides crucial soil moisture and ensures input of cold water to decrease stream temperatures in glacial basins during warmer seasons, maintaining certain plant communities and cold-adapted aquatic invertebrates and fish. Solomon, S., et al, eds. See Also Albedo; Arctic Melting: Greenland Ice Cap; Arctic Melting: Polar Ice Cap; Glaciation; Glacier. Patagonia's changes likely stem in part from warmer, drier conditions, but accelerated glacial flow, resulting in the accelerated loss of large chunks of ice at glacier termini through a process known as calving, also plays a role. ICE SHEET: Glacial ice that covers at least 19,500 square mi (50,000 square km) of land and that flows in all directions, covering and obscuring the landscape below it. THE FURKA PASS, Switzerland â On the hairpin bend of a Swiss mountain pass, a Victorian-era hotel built for tourists to admire the Rhone Glacier has â¦ The 2004 photograph documents the continued thinning and retreat of East Fork Teklanika Glacier. Earth's south polar ice cap is the Antarctic ice sheet. The USGS reports that the state’s glaciers are losing 75 billion tons of ice annually, equal to the amount of water needed to fill Yankee Stadium 150,000 times each year. Glaciers gain mass through snowfall and lose mass through melting and sublimation (when water evaporates directly from solid ice). During that time, the Gulkana Glacier has steadily diminished due to significantly warmer summers in interior Alaska and a relatively unchanged level of snowfall. This photograph by an astronaut on the International Space Station highlights the snout of the Upsala Glacier (49.88°S, 73.3°W) on the Argentine side of the North Patagonian Icefield. Now, long-term data exist for glaciers on every continent. Meanwhile, Montana's Glacier National Park has lost all but 10 of its 27 original glaciers over the past century, and the extent of those remaining has also been vastly reduced. General retreat of glacier tongues started in earnest after 1800, and accelerated across the globe after 1850 and through the twentieth century, with a slight lull during the 1970s before escalating rates of loss began in the 1980s and 1990s. Glaciation is the accumulation of ice in a given area when more snow falls in winter than melts in summer. Retreat of the Gangotri Glacier Currently 30.2 km long and between 0.5 and 2.5 km wide, Gangotri glacier is one of the largest in the Himalaya. When the glaciers advanced, they destroyed whatever ecosystems were in their path. Introduction Today, the main reason glaciers have begun to melt is because of human activity. The great abundance of water on the surface of Earth includes a great quantity of ice in the Polar Regions and highâ¦, Albedo Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. New Zealand glaciers thickened and advanced from the late 1970s through the 1990s, as did some Scandinavian glaciers during the 1990s, potentially due to temporarily enhanced precipitation. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/USGS. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Facts about Washingtonâs retreating glaciers and declining snow pack from Ecologyâs Water Resources Program Washington is especially vulnerable to climate change resulting from global warming, and a major reason for this is our dependence on glaciers and â¦ "Glacier Retreat The areas measured are from 1966, 1998, 2005 and 2015/2016, marking approximately 50 years of change in glacier â¦ When ice glaciers melt faster, temperatures rise further, and more glaciers shrink, which creates a vicious cycle that is significantly châ¦ Therefore, itâs best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publicationâs requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. However, the date of retrieval is often important. In 1966, a team of U.S. Geological Survey scientists journeyed to two small glaciers in Alaska to dig snow pits needed for measuring snow depth and density at the remote mountainous locations. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. ; Because of friction, the top of a glacier moves faster than the bottom. “How the climate has been changing over the past few decades of anthropogenic influence really has manifest itself quite well” in these studies, O’Neel said. Sea level has risen about 5-9 in (13-23 cm) worldwide over the past century, with mountain glacier melt (excluding the glaciers of Greenland's ice sheet) contributing an estimated 1 in (2.7 cm) of this rise between 1865 and 1990. The glaciers and famous snows of Mount Kilimanjaro in Kenya, Africa, will also likely disappear by mid-century for the first time in over 11,000 years if a long-term dry spell, likely part of the climate change picture, persists. Glacial retreat: âWith few exceptions, all the alpine glaciers of the world are losing mass and it is predicted that this trend will continue as global warming progresses. Glaciers are sensitive indicators of climate change because their size and mass change relatively quickly in response to long-term climate variations (such as changing temperature, precipitation, and cloud cover) over the course of decades, rather than to short-term weather patterns. “Detailed and continuous records of this length are exceedingly rare in our field, and thus these are indispensable to our understanding of the changes we’re observing across this region.”. They form over hundreds of years â¦ Oefner selected the Rhone Glacier and the Trift Glacier for this project because he hiked in the Swiss Alps as a child and saw the dramatic retreat in the glaciers on visits home as an adult. âContribution of the Patagonia Icefields of South America to Sea Level Rise.â Science 302 (2003): 434â437. That glacier is a coastal system that flows into the Gulf of Alaska. âModeled Climate-Induced Glacier Change in Glacier National Park, 1850â2100.â BioScience 53 (2003): 131â140. Most of Earth's alpine and non-polar glaciers, which tend to be smaller and more unstable, have shrunken rapidly over the last century. Global ice cover and glacial extent have varied widely over the past 750,000 years, advancing during numerous ice ages, and retreating during intermediate warming periods called interglacials. Theyâre Formed by Snowflakes and Time. âContribution of Glacier Melt to Sea-Level Rise Since AD 1865: A Regionally Differentiated Calculation.â Climate Dynamics 13 (1997): 835â845. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Earth's climate has changed throughout history. Refer to each styleâs convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. Low-nutrient glacier debris depends on flowering lupine and alder to fix nitrogen in the soil. The meltwater has a unique “glacial fingerprint” that is evident in the timing, volume and temperature of the water, as well as the nutrients it carries. Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). While this is certainly positive news, a closer look reveals some bad and potentially ugly news too. The glacier has slowed its retreat, gained ice, and moved towards the ocean rather than inland. . Studies show that human-caused global warming is the leading cause of glacier retreat. Despite trends toward widespread glacier retreat, there are isolated exceptions. < http://www.nsidc.org/glaciers> (accessed December 2, 2007). E&E provides daily coverage of essential energy and environmental news at www.eenews.net. Changes in humidity, precipitation, cloud cover, and albedo (reflectance) that accompany global warming may themselves have a greater impact on glacier retreat in some tropical mountains. Those changes could contribute to the loss of thousands of glaciers in Alaska and northwest Canada by the end of the century. Losses have also been extreme in the European Alps, where glaciers have shrunk 30â40%, and New Zealand, which has lost 20â32% of its glacierized area over the past century. Because they are perennial, glaciers provide an important base flow for streams and rivers beyond more unreliable and now dwindling snowpack melt, sustaining agriculture and drinking water supplies through seasonal variations in many mountain communities from the Andes to the Himalayas. Statistics predict future levels of glacier loss will reach an all-time high. It also influences the rich diversity of species in the marine ecosystem that are important to tourism and fishing industries. Materials deposited by a glacier as it retreats are called ground moraines. Climate Change: In Context. Since higher elevations are cooler, the disappearance of the lowest portion decreases overall ablation, thereby increasing mass balance and potentially reestablishing equilibrium. Glaciers that terminate in a lake or the ocean also lose mass through iceberg calving. Glaciers are classifiable in three main groups: (1) glaciers that extend in continuous sheets, moving outward in all directions, are called ice sheets if they are the size of Antarctica or Greenland and ice caps if they are smaller; (2) glaciers confined within a path that directs the ice movement are called mountain glaciers; and (3) glaciers that spread out on level ground or on the â¦ International Glacier Commission was established in Zurich, Switzerland. Facts about glaciers. However, some studies in the European Alps suggest that many alpine glacier retreat scenarios have been largely overestimated. A bright, highly reflective surface, such as fresh snow, haâ¦, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/energy-government-and-defense-magazines/glacier-retreat. Gulkana drains west into the Yukon River. To see if a glacier is growing or shrinking, glaciologists check the condition of snow and ice at several locations on the glacier at the end of the melt season. Daniel McGrath, a research geophysicist with the program, said much of the government’s ongoing climate research draws from the USGS’s 50 years of Alaska glacier studies. The Trift also happens to be one of the fastest retreating glaciers in the world.. A glacier grows wherever snow accumulates faster than it melts. But glaciers in both areas have resumed retreat since 2000. The most vital ingredient for glacier-making is a location â¦ Glaciers in mid- and high-latitude regions of the Northern Hemisphere, such as the northwestern United States, southwestern Canada, and Alaska, have lost mass quickly over the last century due to accelerated summer melting, despite some increases in precipitation. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. ." Introduction Glaciology is the study of ice and its effects. Zuo, Z., and J. Oerlemans. “They were able to see a pretty pronounced gradient of both physical and biological composition of what’s living in the bay. “It provides tangible evidence for how climate change is affecting the landscapes.”. Mass balance refers to the equilibrium between a glacier's accumulation of snow and ice through precipitation and its ablation, or loss, of snow and ice by melting and sublimation. The reduction of the Zongo Glacier in Bolivia, for example, is already creating freshwater supply problems for downstream human communities. Rignot, Eric, et al. All but the latter are naturally occurring, but human activity over the last several centuries has significantly increased the amounts of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in Earth's atmosphere, causing global warming and global climate change. ." Those early findings, repeated twice a year for the last 50 years, became the baseline for the government’s Benchmark Glacier program, the longest continuous glacier research in North America. Glaciers in alpine areas act as buffers. Glaciers are large masses of ice that flow slowly downhill. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007. Global warming creates temperature increases, causing glaciers to melt faster. Kaser, Georg, et al. Glaciers form at high latitudes and altitudes where vast quantities of fallen snow accumulate over time and compress into thick masses of ice that flow downhill under their own weight. Glaciers in the Garhwal Himalaya in India are retreating so fast that researchers believe that most central and eastern Himalayan glaciers could virtually disappear by 2035. âAll About Glaciers.â National Snow and Ice Data Center. Meanwhile, the Wolverine Glacier, which is also shrinking, has experienced slightly cooler summers and more variability in winter temperatures. Glaciers store about 69 percent of the world's fresh water. Encyclopedia.com. Glaciers are huge masses of ice that âflowâ like very slow rivers. Humans began tracking the length and extent of certain glaciers as early as 1534 in European mountain ranges, but thorough, internationally coordinated glacier monitoring did not start until 1894, when the. The branch resumed retreat, and in 2019 shed ample icebergs during an anomalously warm summer. Retrieved October 16, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/energy-government-and-defense-magazines/glacier-retreat. Alder, willow and cottonwood tree seeds systematically grow in deglaciated landscapes. Glacierized areas cover over 15 million square kilometers (5.8 million square miles). Interesting Facts about Glaciers. “We had a team of biological oceanographers that went into Kings Bay, which is where Wolverine drains into,” he said. Today, the federal benchmark glacier program extends beyond Alaska and includes research at the South Cascade Glacier in Washington state and the Sperry Glacier in Montana. So we’re getting some core baseline biological data to go with the physical drivers that go back 50 years.”. 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